Parameter Files

STARTUP RULE OF PRECEDENCE

At instance startup, the rule of precedence is the following:

  1. spfile<SID>.ora
  2. spfile.ora if the spfile<SID>.ora does not exist
  3. init<SID>.ora if the spfile.ora does not exist.

To use an init<SID>.ora when an spfile exists, use the pfile clause with the startup command. For example:

      startup pfile=/u01/oracle/dbs/init<SID>.ora

This option is not available for an spfile. Oracle will display the following error message if attempted:

      startup spfile=/u01/oracle/dbs/spfile<SID>.ora
      SP2-0714:
      invalid combination of STARTUP options

DEFAULT LOCATION

If the pfile clause is not used for instance startup, the init<SID>.ora is searched for in the following default locations:

  • On Unix
    • $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
  • On Windows
    • %ORACLE_HOME%\database
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